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Monday, May 31, 2010

CE Marking IVD

In vitro

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Human embryos photographed developing in vitro

A procedure performed in vitro (Latin: within the glass) is performed not in a livingorganism but in a controlled environment, such as in a test tube or Petri dish.[1]Many experiments in cellular biology are conducted outside of organisms or cells; because the test conditions may not correspond to the conditions inside of the organism, this may lead to results that do not correspond to the situation that arises in a living organism. Consequently, such experimental results are often annotated with in vitro, in contradistinction with in vivo.

[edit]In vitro research

This type of research aims at describing the effects of an experimental variable on a subset of an organism's constituent parts. It tends to focus on organs, tissues, cells, cellular components, proteins, and/or biomolecules. In vitro research is better suited than in vivo research for deducing biological mechanisms of action. With fewer variables and perceptually amplified reactions to subtle causes, results are generally more discernible.

The massive adoption of low-cost in vitro molecular biology techniques has caused a shift away from in vivo research which is moreidiosyncratic and expensive in comparison to its molecular counterpart. Currently, in vitro research is vital and highly productive.

However, the controlled conditions present in the in vitro system differ significantly from those in vivo, and may give misleading results. Therefore, in vitro studies are usually followed by in vivo studies. Examples include:

  • In biochemistry, non-physiological stoichiometric concentration may result in enzymatic active in a reverse direction, for example several enzymes in the Krebs cycle may appear to have incorrect nomenclature.
  • DNA may adopt other configurations, such as A-DNA.
  • Protein folding may differ as in a cell there is a high density of other protein and there are systems to aid in the folding, while in vitro, conditions are less clustered and not aided.

It should be pointed out that the term is historical, as currently most lab ware is disposable and made out of polypropylene (sterilizable by autoclaving, ex: microcentrifuge tubes) or clear polystyrene (ex: serological pipettes) rather than glass to ease labwork, ensure sterility, and minimize the possibility of cuts from broken glass.


  1. ^ Kail, Robert V.; John C. Cavanaugh (2006). Human Development: A Life-span View (4, illustrated ed.). Cengage Learning. pp. 58.ISBN 0495093041, 9780495093046.

[edit]See also

ISO 9000 for EDUCATION Sector: Schools and Colleges in INDIA

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CYBER War, threat to security of INDIA

The Defence Minister Shri AK Antony today asked the top brass of the Armed Forces to work in unison and make cyber systems 'as secure and as non-porous as possible'. Addressing the Army Commanders here, Shri Antony said cyber-warfare is becoming a serious threat to security. "The paradigms of security in the age of Information Technology are seldom constant. The evolving security matrix is complex and calls for co-operation and coordination of the highest level. Today, no single service can work in isolation. Cyber warfare and threats to cyber security are fast becoming the next generation of threats. We need to make our cyber systems as secure and as non-porous as possible", he said.
Shri Antony made a strong plea for synergy among the three Forces and said the future security matrix calls for a high-degree of cooperation and inter-dependence among the Services. He said the primary area of focus should be to develop as a force capable of operating in joint network – centric environment. Besides these the other emerging areas that warrant synergised development are space, NBC, Cyber Warfare capabilities, Air Defence, Rotary Wing Assistance, precision munitions, standoff targeting and missiles, communication systems, logistics and joint training.
"Though significant progress has been made towards accomplishing jointness in various operational training and administrative facets among the three Services, there are a number of areas congruence that need to be strengthened further", he said.
Referring to the Modernisation Plans of the Armed Forces, the Defence Minister said it is in our long term national interest that we become self reliant in the field of critical defence equipment. He said modernisation plans of the Armed Forces encompass force modernisation and development of critical combat capabilities, not only against potential adversaries, but across the spectrum of conflict. Modernisation of the Armed Forces wholly depends upon the capital acquisition plan.
However, the acquisition of critical technologies from foreign countries is subject to various technology denial regimes and the prevailing global geo-political situation. Shri Antony said the Defence Public Sector Undertakings are today at a threshold, capable of undertaking design and development work as also to come up with product upgrades on their own. Despite these achievements we must guard against complacency and must ceaselessly work towards more value addition, product support and serviceability of the supplies made to the end-users – the Services. "It is the collective responsibility of all DPSUs to optimize cost-effectiveness and must adhere to time and cost targets", Shri Antony said.

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When the federal government approved the Cape Wind project in April, allowing 130 power-generating turbines to be placed in the waters off Cape Cod on the US east coast, it gave a significant boost to the prospects of wind energy, but the comparatively high costs of wind power remain a problem. However in a new study, MIT researchers have concluded that some of the price problems associated with wind power can be remedied right now, given a couple of changes to the electricity grid.

A key insight of the study is that wind’s apparent drawbacks as a power source – it only blows intermittently, and in many places blows harder at night than during the day – could actually be used to the advantage of power companies, with one condition. If power grids were equipped with large storage batteries that are commercially available right now, placed near urban areas, they could accumulate energy via wind power during off-peak night hours, then discharge the saved power during peak afternoon hours (when people have their air-conditioning on during the summer, for instance). That would make economic sense for the power-grid operators, which pay higher rates to generators during peak hours, while keeping consumer prices intact.

‘With existing battery technology and realistic costs, we wanted to see if it is possible to take advantage of market dynamics to make wind power profitable now,’ says Goentzel. He and his colleagues combined information about leading-edge grid-scale batteries with two years of historical data on wind speeds, utility prices and consumer electricity use throughout New England. For power companies, Goentzel says, wind can work, but ‘it comes down to how you manage the battery: When you charge, when you discharge and where you locate it.’

Location, location, location

In New England, retail electricity prices in February 2010 averaged US16.3c (about R1.24) per kilowatt-hour (a standard industry measure), according to the Department of Energy. The Cape Wind project is slated to begin selling wholesale electricity to National Grid, a utility firm, at US20.7c (about R1.58) per kilowatt-hour.

In general, however, the cost of wind energy depends on wind speed, location – onshore turbines generate cheaper power than offshore machines, due to installation expenses – and other factors like transmission costs. Nationally, according to the American Wind Energy Association, a trade group, wind costs a wholesale price of US4.8c (about R0.36) per kilowatt-hour with wind speeds of around 25km/h, and US2.6c (about R.20) per kilowatt-hour at about 33km/h. (This factors in the federal government’s renewable energy production tax credit, worth US2.1c (about R0.16) per kilowatt-hour.)

To calculate costs, the MIT team first received detailed data about current and next-generation products from officials at two companies that build large-scale modular batteries suitable for grid use (the firms asked for anonymity). Then, after scrutinising the historical data, the researchers noticed something that could make wind power feasible: In all locations, electricity prices vary between peak and off-peak hours, but the spread is greater in heavily populated areas, like Boston, Providence or southern Connecticut. Yet because of civic politics, notes Siegert, ‘Wind plants are located further away from where the demand is.’ People tend not to want windmills spoiling the view from their windows.

To turn wind power into affordable electricity, then, the key is to connect rural wind farms to power-storage devices near cities, rather than locating storage devices near wind farms. ‘If you put batteries in upstate Maine, yeah, you’re going to get lower prices at night and higher prices during the day, but the difference is not as extreme as in the area around Greenwich or Cos Cob, Connecticut,’ observes Siegert. ‘So if you look strategically at where to place grid-scale batteries, there are huge arbitrage opportunities in some locations.’

Batteries not included (yet)

To see if wind power would fit into a profitable power-delivery model, the researchers built a Monte Carlo simulation model of the grid (, plugged in a rich set of data on weather patterns and market prices, and then examined the expected profits.

The two types of large batteries in the model cost US$144 million (about R1.1 billion) and US$60 million (about R457 million), respectively. Given the current range of electricity prices, the researchers’ conclusion is that the second type of battery would pay back its costs after 14 years of summer-level use (when electricity consumption is higher) and 32 years of winter-level use, and would have an operating life of 30 years.

The operating profit, they found, increases sharply when grid batteries charge and discharge dynamically throughout the day depending on conditions. Other energy analysts have studied the battery concept while assuming operators would employ six-hour spans for charging at night and discharging during the day. But consumer use fluctuates more rapidly than that; an energy-delivery program with shorter charging and discharging periods would not only fit demand patterns more closely, but help extend battery life, too. Moreover, adds, Goentzel, ‘Any technological advances in batteries will only make the business case better.’

One additional policy qualification is needed to make the concept practical, adds Goentzel. Grid operators pay pumped hydro-power facility owners in order to have backup power capacity ready at all times. Applying the same concept to battery-stored power would give businesses incentive to invest in wind farms. ‘Installed capacity payments are important in making large-scale battery storage viable,’ acknowledges Goentzel, ‘But it’s not some kind of special green energy subsidy, it would just require extending the current policy for pumped hydro to batteries.’

If large-scale batteries are a profitable investment for energy-delivery companies, then, and can be operated in a way that fits the characteristics of wind power, the final question is how much room there is for wind power to grow. The offshore areas of Massachusetts are the windiest in the state. On dry land, New England’s largest contiguous windy area is Eastern Maine.

Namovicz says the EIA projects that as much as 8,500 megawatts of wind energy – enough to power between 1.9 million and 2.6 million homes – is available in New England at economically viable prices.

The critical question the study has answered, Goentzel says, is that ‘certain operational strategies can help profitably deploy battery storage at scale without special subsidies. The concept is not limited to experimental projects, like putting a small battery on a wind-farm site.’

The MIT study, Economic Analysis of Wind Plant and Battery Storage Operation using Supply Chain Management Techniques, has been accepted for presentation at the July 2010 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, in Minneapolis.

Source: MIT