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Tuesday, December 30, 2008

e bomb THREAT

United States Action

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Other Subjects: --- EMP and Faraday Cages --- EMP and Other Practical Advice --- EMP Senate Hearings March 2005 --- EMP News Articles and Commentary
General Definition - Electromagnetic pulse
In addition to other effects, a nuclear weapon detonated in or above the earth’s atmosphere or alternatively an E-Bomb (see below) can create an electromagnetic pulse (EMP), a high-density electrical field. EMP acts like a stroke of lightning but is stronger, faster and briefer. EMP can seriously damage electronic devices connected to power sources or antennas. This include communication systems, computers, electrical appliances, and automobile or aircraft ignition systems. The damage could range from a minor interruption to actual burnout of components. Most electronic equipment within 1,000 miles of a high-altitude nuclear detonation could be affected. Battery powered radios with short antennas generally would not be affected.
Although EMP is unlikely to harm most people, it could harm those with pacemakers or other implanted electronic devices.
An Air Force spokesman, who describes this effect as similar to a lightning strike, points out that electronics systems can be protected by placing them in metal enclosures called Faraday Cages that divert any impinging electromagnetic energy directly to the ground. Foreign military analysts say this reassuring explanation is incomplete.
What can be done? See Web Page on Faraday Cages ( Web Page on EMP Other Practical Advice and also latest news in Washington Times August 19, 2003 commentary ("The blackout next time").
Home Electromagnetic Pulse Railgun Technology Non-lethal Anti-Personnel Electromagnetic Weapons
Definition of an electromagnetic pulse (EMP):
1. The electromagnetic radiation from a nuclear explosion caused by Compton-recoil electrons and photoelectrons from photons scattered in the materials of the nuclear device or in a surrounding medium. The resulting electric and magnetic fields may couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. May also be caused by nonnuclear means. 2. A broadband, high-intensity, short-duration burst of electromagnetic energy. Note: In the case of a nuclear detonation, the electromagnetic pulse consists of a continuous frequency spectrum. Most of the energy is distributed throughout the lower frequencies between 3 Hz and 30 kHz.
History of the EMP
The existence of the electromagnetic pulse has been known since the 1940's when nuclear weapons were being developed and tested. However, because of lack of data, the effects of an EMP were not fully known until 1962. At this time, the United States was conducting a series of high-altitude atmospheric tests, code named "Fishbowl." The nuclear explosion, "Starfish Prime," which was detonated in the Pacific Ocean 800 miles from Hawaii, caused an EMP that disrupted radio stations and electrical equipment throughout Hawaii. Consequently, in 1963, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty to counter the considerable threat posed by EMPs. Unfortunately, the destructive potential of an EMP increases everyday as society becomes evermore technological because of an escalating dependence on electronics.
Physics of the EMP
An electromagnetic pulse starts with a short, intense burst of gamma rays produced from nuclear detonation. The gamma rays interact with the atoms in air molecules through a process called the Compton effect, wherein electrons are scattered at high energies, thus ionizing the atmosphere and generating a powerful electrical field. The strength of the EMP depends highly on the altitude at which it is released. At altitudes above 30,000m, it is the strongest. It is also significant at surface or low altitude bursts, but is not as effective between the two extremes.
Effects of an EMP
Although the electric field created from an EMP lasts for only a short time, its effects can be devastating. It is predicted that a single high altitude burst 200 miles above Kansas could propagate an EMP enveloping the entire United States. Electrical systems connected to things that can conduct current like wires, antennas, and metal objects will suffer significant damage. EMP effects on electronics include interference of radio frequency links, irreparable damage to microcircuits, and even the disabling of satellites. Fortunately, electronic equipment that is turned off is less likely to be damaged.
Protecting Against EMP
Electrical equipment is "hardened" to protect itself from an EMP. The basic concern of protection is cutting down the outside EMP level. Metallic shielding is used to route EMP fields away from vital electrical components. If it is also connected to a cable, transient protection like surge protectors, wire termination procedures, screened isolated transformers, protective enclosures, spark gaps, and filters are used to protect at the point of entry. To protect against EMP in an indirect way, other methods are used, such as increasing immediate backup units and avoidance (i.e. keeping equipment out of range of EMP bursts).


SURE RESISTORS is leading and renowned professional manufacturer of wire wound resistor. ‘SURE’ is already an establish brand as premium quality, manufacturing wire wound resistors for industrial as well as professional electronic use. In the wide band of production range there is greater flexibility to suit individual requirement of wire wound resistors. Strong ERP software and extensive database help us to provide this service with high stability and negligible failure rate. Sure is already enjoying the credit and goodwill of being only supplier of wire wound resistors to many companies in India which has requirement of wire wound resistor more than 50000 pcs / month.



SURE RESISTORS was incorporated in 1981 as a specialist manufacturer of professional grade wire wound resistors.Our managing partner Mr. UMESH MEHTA B. E. (Elect) is dedicated to ultimate in quality and as a result SURE has consistently maintained a reputation for high quality and versatility and has moved towards Total Quality Management. SURE RESISTORS is now an ISO 9001: 2000 certified company.

SURE RESISTORS is a small scale manufacturing unit constituted of a partnership firm.

SURE RESISTORS has now transformed itself into a broad based, professional grade wire wound resistor manufacturer with full fledge computerized design and ERP software capabilities. SURE RESISTORS at present has a very high production capacity, employing team of engineers and a skilled staff over 50 employees.

SURE RESISTORS has capacity to manufacture a wide range of stable wire wound resistors which also includes a ceramic encased, silicon coated, aluminum housed and low ohm type with multiple physical configuration in power rating of 1 watt and 100 Kilowatts.

To provide the users with the Quality Product by manufacturing them within an organizations by:
Making best use of technology
Designed to suit requirements
Using best Practices for operational excellence
Achieving Goodwill for our product as an ultimate Quality Product and Gaining major Market Share on the basis of our Product and Service.
Core Value:
Good Will

SURE'S Quality policy :
We are committed to the manufacture of premium quality resistors without compromising on quality at any stage of the product realization process.
We are committed to ensure that the supply chain to our customers is maintained at all times.
We will always ensure that our customer requirements are determined and met effectively so that we will have continual quality improvement in our Quality Management System.

SURE'S Quality objectives :
SALES: Reduce offer submission time by 5% every year
PURCHASE: Upgrade the average vendors rating by 5% every year
PRODUCTION: Zero late deliveries , Zero customer complaints
QUALITY CONTROL: Product field failure rate less than 15 PPM
QUALITY ASSURANCE: Undertake at least 2 preventive action projects every year
TRAINING : Upgrade the average competency level of workers and staff by 5% every year

Wire wound Resistors - Types



SAA Aluminum Housed Axial Flat Lead Wire Wound Resistor

SAB/SAC - Aluminum Housed Axial 4/5 mm Screw Lead Wire Wound Resistor

SBH Braking Resistor


SRH Rheostat

SSRV Silicon Coated Adjustable Type Wire Wound Resistor


SSA Silicon Coated Axial Lead Wire Wound Resistor

SSR Silicon Coated Radial Tag Wire Wound Resistor

SSP - Silicon Coated Radial PCB flat Lead Wire Wound Resistor

SSF Silicon Coated Fusible Axial Lead Fusible Type Wire Wound Resistor

SSS - Silicon Coated Axial Screw Lead Wire Wound Resistor

SZA Silicon Coated Zero Ohm Axial Lead Wire Wound Resistor


SCA Ceramic Encased Axial Lead Wire Wound Resistor

SCF Ceramic Encased Axial Lead Fusible Type Wire Wound Resistor

SBA - Ceramic Boat Type Axial Lead Wire Wound Resistor

SBR Ceramic Boat Type Radial Wire lead Wire Wound Resistor

SBP Ceramic Boat Type Radial PCB tag/flat clip Wire Wound Resistor

SBC - Ceramic Boat Type Radial plain tag/flat clip Wire Wound Resistor

SCV - Ceramic Boat Type Vertical Configuration Lead Wire Wound Resistor


SSH Silicon Coated Space Heater Radial Tag Wire Wound Resistor


SLA Load Resistor - AA Configuration

SLG Load Resistor - Grid Configuration

SLP Load Resistor - Punch Grid Configuration

Preventing Blackouts:

ugust 13, 2008 in Society & Policy | 0 comments | Post a comment
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Preventing Blackouts: Building a Smarter Power Grid

A smarter power grid that automatically responds to problems could reduce the rising number of debilitating blackouts

By Massoud Amin and Phillip F. Schewe

Reddit Review it on NewsTrust

Editor's Note: This story was originally published in the May 2007 issue of Scientific American.

August 14, 2003, was a typical warm day in the Midwest. But shortly after 2:00 P.M. several power lines in northern Ohio, sagging under the high current they were carrying, brushed against some overgrown trees and shut down. Such a disturbance usually sets off alarms in a local utility’s control room, where human operators work with controllers in neighboring regions to reroute power flows around the injury site.

On this day, however, the alarm software failed, leaving local operators unaware of the problem. Other controllers who were relaying, or “wheeling,” large amounts of power hundreds of miles across Ohio, Michigan, the northeastern U.S. and Ontario, Canada, were oblivious, too. Transmission lines surrounding the failure spot, already fully taxed, were forced to shoulder more than their safe quota of electricity.

To make matters worse, utilities were not generating enough “reactive power”—an attribute of the magnetic and electric fields that move current along a wire. Without sufficient reactive power to support the suddenly shifting flows, overburdened lines in Ohio cut out by 4:05 P.M. In response, a power plant shut down, destabilizing the system’s equilibrium. More lines and more plants dropped out. The cascade continued, faster than operators could track with the decades-old monitoring equipment that dots most of the North American power grid, and certainly much faster than they could control. Within eight minutes 50 million people across eight states and two Canadian provinces had been blacked out. The event was the largest power loss in North American history.

The 2003 disaster was a harbinger, too. Within two months, major blackouts occurred in the U.K., Denmark, Sweden and Italy. In September 2003 some 57 million Italians were left in the dark because of complications in transmitting power from France into Switzerland and then into Italy. In the U.S., the annual number of outages affecting 50,000 or more customers has risen for more than a decade.

In addition to inconvenience, blackouts are causing major economic losses. The troubles will get worse until the entire transmission system that moves power from generating plants to neighborhood substations is overhauled. More high-voltage lines must be built to catch up with the rising demand imposed by ever more air conditioners, computers and rechargeable gadgets.

But perhaps even more important, the power grid must be made smarter. Most of the equipment that minds the flow of electricity dates back to the 1970s. This control system is not good enough to track disturbances in real time—as they happen— or to respond automatically to isolate problems before they snowball. Every node in the power grid should be awake, responsive and in communication with every other node. Furthermore, the information that operators receive at central control stations is sparse and at least 30 seconds old, making it impossible for them to react fast enough to stop the large cascades that do start. A self-healing smart grid—one that is aware of nascent trouble and can reconfigure itself to resolve the problem—could reduce blackouts dramatically, as well as contain the chaos that could be triggered by terrorist sabotage. It would also allow more efficient wheeling of power, saving utilities and their customers millions of dollars during routine operation. The technology to build this smart grid largely exists, and recent demonstration projects are proving its worth.

Overwhelmed by Progress
The transmission system has become vulnerable to blackouts because of a century-long effort to reduce power losses. As power moves through a wire, some of it is wasted in the form of heat. The loss is proportional to the amount of current being carried, so utilities keep the current low and compensate by raising the voltage. They have also built progressively longer, higher-voltage lines to more efficiently deliver power from generation plants to customers located far away. These high-voltage lines also allow neighboring utilities to link their grids, thereby helping one another sustain a critical balance between generation supply and customer demand.

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Leadership Skills, evaluation

Leadership Questionnaire






Additional Information

Reliability & Validity


Objective: To determine the degree that a person likes working with tasks and people.

Time: 45 Minutes


Quality Management Maturity Grid

Quality Management Maturity Grid (QMMG) is an organizational maturity matrix conceived by Philip B. Crosby first published in his book Quality is Free in 1979.[1][2] The QMMG is used by a business or organization as a benchmark of how mature their processes are, and how well they are embedded in their culture, with respect to service or product quality management.

The QMMG is credited with being the precursor maturity model for the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) created a decade later and also has five levels of maturity.


  1. ^ Crosby, Philip (1979). Quality is Free. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014512-1.
  2. ^ Crosby, Philip (1980). Quality is Free (paperback). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-451-62585-4.

See also

Load Management

Unprecedented Measurement, Control and Verification

GridPoint's flexible software platform allows utilities to continually fine tune load mangement programs to meet diverse customer needs and changing supply requirements. For instance, utilities can concurrently choose to turn off water heaters for 15 minutes in a specific region and change temperature in another. Customers can easily "opt out" of a specific event either through GridPoint's online energy management portal or in the case of a temperature adjustment, directly from their thermostat.

GridPoint's platform provides utilities with unparalleled circuit-level measurement, management and verification. Predicting, controlling and verifying loads can be segmented by load type (e.g. air conditioners) either by substation, feeder, individual customer or in aggregate, enabling utilities to dispatch and monitor load capacity just like a generation asset.

With actual consumption data on water heaters, pool pumps, etc., utilities can predict peak periods on specific devices and reduce consumption on lower energy consuming devices. Utilities can more accurately balance supply and demand while minimizing impact on customers.

GridPoint's business intelligence reports provide immediate feedback on participation levels and curtailment achieved, allowing program managers to continually refine and improve their programs as well as demonstrate return on investment.

The GridPoint Control Console provides utilities with direct control to reduce load in real-time or through scheduled events. The control console can be accessed from a utility's control room or integrated within a utility's energy management system.

Utility Support Services

Grid Management| Print Preview |

For overall improvement and better grid management in the country, POWERGRID has modernised all the Regional Load Dispacth Centres (RLDCs) with the state-of-the-art Unified Load Despatch & Communication (ULDC) schemes at a cost of about Rs. 2,000 Crore. These modernised RLDCs are greatly contributing to bring quality and economy in the operation of the power system besides improving data availability, visibility and transparency.

With the adoption of state-of-the-art operational practices, proactive preventive maintenance, implementation of ABT, the modernization of RLDCs coupled with training & deployment of expert manpower and round the clock vigil for grid management, no major grid disturbances in the country have been encountered for the last 5½ years. Further, tripping of lines and minor grid disturbances in regional grids have come down so significantly that it can be reckoned as a benchmark achievement. For overall co-ordination, National Load Despacth Centre (NLDC) at Delhi,with back up at Kolkata, is under implementation and is expected to be completed by May 2008.

POWERGRID has spearheaded the implementation of Availability Based Tariff (ABT) across the country, which has a built-in commercial mechanism to reward proper grid behaviour. This has significantly stabilised vital grid parameters, i.e. voltage and frequency thereby improving the quality of power.

Last Modified Date : 9/2/2008


Sunday, December 28, 2008

CONTRACT REVIEW Important - ISO 9001

Contract Law - An Introduction
By Aaron Larson
The Elements of a Contract
Oral Contracts
A contract intends to formalize an agreement between two or more parties, in relation to a particular subject. Contracts can cover an extremely broad range of matters, including the sale of goods or real property, the terms of employment or of an independent contractor relationship, the settlement of a dispute, and ownership of intellectual property developed as part of a work for hire.

The Elements of a Contract
Typically, in order to be enforceable, a contract must involve the following elements:
A "Meeting of the Minds" (Mutual Consent)
The parties to the contract have a mutual understanding of what the contract covers. For example, in a contract for the sale of a "mustang", the buyer thinks he will obtain a car and the seller believes he is contracting to sell a horse, there is no meeting of the minds and the contract will likely be held unenforceable.

Offer and Acceptance
The contract involves an offer (or more than one offer) to another party, who accepts the offer. For example, in a contract for the sale of a piano, the seller may offer the piano to the buyer for $1,000.00. The buyer's acceptance of that offer is a necessary part of creating a binding contract for the sale of the piano.
Please note that a counter-offer is not an acceptance, and will typically be treated as a rejection of the offer. For example, if the buyer counter-offers to purchase the piano for $800.00, that typically counts as a rejection of the original offer for sale. If the seller accepts the counter-offer, a contract may be completed. However, if the seller rejects the counter-offer, the buyer will not ordinarily be entitled to enforce the prior $1,000.00 price if the seller decides either to raise the price or to sell the piano to somebody else.

Mutual Consideration (The mutual exchange of something of value)
In order to be valid, the parties to a contract must exchange something of value. In the case of the sale of a piano, the buyer receives something of value in the form of the piano, and the seller receives money.

While the validity of consideration may be subject to attack on the basis that it is illusory (e.g., one party receives only what the other party was already obligated to provide), or that there is a failure of consideration (e.g., the consideration received by one party is essentially worthless), these defenses will not let a party to a contract escape the consequences of bad negotiation. For example, if a seller enters into a contract to sell a piano for $100, and later gets an offer from somebody else for $1,000, the seller can't revoke the contract on the basis that the piano was worth a lot more than he bargained to receive.

Performance or Delivery
In order to be enforceable, the action contemplated by the contract must be completed. For example, if the purchaser of a piano pays the $1,000 purchase price, he can enforce the contract to require the delivery of the piano. However, unless the contract provides that delivery will occur before payment, the buyer may not be able to enforce the contract if he does not "perform" by paying the $1,000. Similarly, again depending upon the contract terms, the seller may not be able to enforce the contract without first delivering the piano.

In a typical "breach of contract" action, the party alleging the breach will recite that it performed all of its duties under the contract, whereas the other party failed to perform its duties or obligations.

Additionally, the following elements may factor into the enforceability of any contract:
Good Faith
It is implicit within all contracts that the parties are acting in good faith. For example, if the seller of a "mustang" knows that the buyer thinks he is purchasing a car, but secretly intends to sell the buyer a horse, the seller is not acting in good faith and the contract will not be enforceable.

No Violation of Public Policy
In order to be enforceable, a contract cannot violate "public policy". For example, if the subject matter of a contract is illegal, you cannot enforce the contract. A contract for the sale of illegal drugs, for example, violates public policy and is not enforceable.

Please note that public policy can shift. Traditionally, many states refused to honor gambling debts incurred in other jurisdictions on public policy grounds. However, as more and more states have permitted gambling within their own borders, that policy has mostly been abandoned and gambling debts from legal enterprises are now typically enforceable. (A "bookie" might not be able to enforce a debt arising from an illegal gambling enterprise, but a legal casino will now typically be able to enforce its debt.) Similarly, it used to be legal to sell "switchblade kits" through the U.S. mail, but that practice is now illegal. Contracts for the interstate sale of such kits were no longer enforceable following that change in the law.

Oral Contracts
There is an old joke that "an oral contract isn't worth the paper it's written on". That's a reference to the fact that it can be very difficult to prove that an oral contract exists. Absent proof of the terms of the contract, a party may be unable to enforce the contract or may be forced to settle for less than the original bargain. Thus, even when there is not an opportunity to draft up a formal contract, it is good practice to always make some sort of writing, signed by both parties, to memorialize the key terms of an agreement.

At the same time, under most circumstances, if the terms of an oral contract can be proved or are admitted by the other party, an oral contract is every bit as enforceable as one that is in writing. There are, however, "statute of fraud" laws which hold that some contracts cannot be enforced unless reduced to writing and signed by both parties. For more information on the Statute of Frauds, please see this associated article.

Please note that, although sometimes an oral contract is referred to as a "verbal contract", the term "oral" means "spoken" while the term "verbal" can also mean" in words". Under that definition, all contracts are technically "verbal". If you mean to refer to a contract that is not written, although most people will recognize what you mean by "verbal contract", for maximum clarity it is helpful to refer to it as an "oral contract".

Contract Review
In our company, we use contracts to define what we are to make and deliver to our customer, when it is to be delivered, what the price will be, and other sundry considerations.

We believe it is important to review a contract with both the customer and the people doing the work before it is finalized. This is to make sure we understand what the customer wants and that we are able to make a product that fulfills what those desires.

We believe that effective contract review will result in reduced costs by helping eliminate contractual misunderstandings that cause wasted effort and material. It will also ultimately result in increased business due to customer satisfaction from getting expected goods and services.

Thus, in order to make sure there are no contractual misunderstandings, it is the policy of this company to adhere to the ISO 9001 standard on Contract Review and always review each contract before it is finalized to see that:
The requirements are adequately defined and documented;
Any requirements differing from those in the tender are resolved; and
We have the capability to meet contractual requirements.

Also, to make sure there are no contractual misunderstandings, it is our policy to always coordinate with the purchaser's organization, as appropriate, our contract review activities, interfaces and communication.

To make sure we can check and verify what transpired at our contract review meetings, it is our policy to always maintain records of those contract reviews, as per Policy.

To make sure we properly implement this contract review policy, it is our policy to always use Procedure for the review of contracts and for the coordination of these activities.

anti dumping duty - TILES

Notification No.94/2008-Customs dated 01.08.2008
Anti dumping duty on vitrified and porcelain tiles, other than vitrified industrial tiles (6907 or 6908 or 6914)

G.S.R. (E).- Whereas in the matter of import of vitrified and porcelain tiles, other than vitrified industrial tiles (hereinafter referred to as the subject goods), falling under headings 6907 or 6908 or 6914 of the First Schedule to the Customs Tariff Act, 1975 (51 of 1975), originating in, or exported from, the United Arab Emirates and People’s Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as China PR) and imported into India, the designated authority in its sunset review final findings vide notification No. 15/17/2006-DGAD, dated the 21st April, 2008, published in the Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part I, Section 1, dated the 23rd April, 2008, as amended, had come to the conclusion that -

(i) there was no dumping taking place from United Arab Emirates;

(ii) the subject goods were likely to enter Indian market at dumped prices from China PR, should the present measures be withdrawn;

(iii) in spite of the antidumping measures in place, there existed significant current injury to the domestic industry and there was also no evidence on record to suggest that dumping or the injury to the domestic industry would cease to exist or was not likely to recur in case the anti-dumping duties were discontinued,

and had considered it necessary to continue imposition of the anti-dumping duty on the subject goods originating in, or exported from, China PR in order to remove injury to the domestic industry;

And whereas on the basis of the aforesaid findings of the designated authority, the Central Government had imposed an anti-dumping duty on the subject goods, vide notification of the Government of India in the Ministry of Finance (Department of Revenue), No. 82/2008-Customs, dated the 27th June, 2008, published in the Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part II, Section 3, Sub-section (i) vide number G.S.R.485(E), dated the 27th June, 2008; And whereas in the aforesaid sunset review final findings, the designated authority, on the basis of its new shipper review final findings vide notification No.15/23/2006-DGAD, dated the 14th February, 2008, published in the Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part I, Section 1, dated the 21st May, 2008 which held that the dumping margin of the vitrified porcelain tiles manufactured by M/s Foshan Nanhai Jing Yu Ceramics Ltd. Foshan China (also known as Bioma Ceramics), People’s Republic of China and exported by M/s Shye International, Hong Kong was found to be de minimis and recommended that no anti-dumping duty be imposed on imports of said vitrified or porcelain tiles produced by M/s Foshan Nanhai Jing Yu Ceramics Ltd. Foshan China (also known as Bioma Ceramics), People’s Republic of China and exported by M/s Shye International, Hong Kong, and considering that the combination of M/s Foshan Nanhai Jing Yu Ceramics Ltd. Foshan China (also known as Bioma Ceramics), People’s Republic of China and M/s Shye International, Hong Kong had not made sales to India during the period of investigation of the sunset review investigation but had exported subject goods to India in post period of investigation period, had held the aforesaid combination as a cooperating exporter;

Now, therefore, in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) and sub-section (5) of section 9A of the said Customs Tariff Act, read with rules 18, 20 and 22 of the Customs Tariff (Identification, Assessment and Collection of Anti-dumping Duty on Dumped Articles and for Determination of Injury) Rules, 1995, the Central Government, on the basis of the aforesaid final findings, hereby makes the following amendment in the notification of the Government of India in the Ministry of Finance (Department of Revenue), No.82/2008-Customs, dated the 27th June, 2008, published in the Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part II, Section 3, Sub-section (i) vide number G.S.R. 485(E), dated the 27th June, 2008, namely :-

In the said notification, after the opening paragraph, the following proviso shall be inserted, namely: -

“Provided that no anti-dumping duty shall be imposed on the imports into India of the subject goods produced by M/s Foshan Nanhai Jing Yu Ceramics Ltd. Foshan China (also known as Bioma Ceramics), People’s Republic of China and exported by M/s Shye International, Hong Kong.”

2. This notification shall be effective from the date of issue of the sunset review notification No.82/2008-Customs, that is, the 27th June, 2008.

[F. No. 354/214/2001-TRU(Pt.III)]
(G. G. Pai)
Under Secretary to the Government of India

Note. - The principal notification No. 82/2008-Customs, dated the 27th June, 2008, was published in the Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part II, Section 3, Sub-section (i) vide number G.S.R. 485(E), dated the 27th June, 2008.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - India's Premier portal on Customs matters


Inverter (electrical)

An inverter is an electrical or electro-mechanical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC); the resulting AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits.

Static inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications, from small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utility high-voltage direct current applications that transport bulk power. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from DC sources such as solar panels or batteries.

The electrical inverter is a high-power electronic oscillator. It is so named because early mechanical AC to DC converters were made to work in reverse, and thus were "inverted", to convert DC to AC. The inverter performs the opposite function of a rectifier.

1 Applications
1.1 DC power source utilization
1.2 Uninterruptible power supplies
1.3 Induction heating
1.4 HVDC power transmission
1.5 Variable-frequency drives
1.6 Electric vehicle drives
1.7 The general case
2 Circuit description
2.1 Basic designs
2.2 Output waveforms
2.3 Advanced designs
2.4 Three phase inverters
3 History
3.1 Early inverters
3.2 Controlled rectifier inverters
3.3 Rectifier and inverter pulse numbers
4 See also
5 References
5.1 Citations
5.2 General references
6 External links


Inverter (logic gate)

Traditional NOT Gate (Inverter) symbol

International Electrotechnical Commission
In digital logic, an inverter or NOT gate is a logic gate which implements logical negation. The truth table is shown on the right.

This represents perfect switching behavior, which is the defining assumption in Digital electronics. In practice, actual devices have electrical characteristics that must be carefully considered when designing inverters. In fact, the non-ideal transition region behavior of a CMOS inverter makes it useful in analog electronics as a class A amplifier (e.g., as the output stage of an operational amplifier[1]).

1 Electronic implementation
1.1 Digital building block
1.2 Performance measurement
1.3 External links
1.4 References


putty for encapsulation, India

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BRANCH POLYRESIN .......... Pune
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GLOSSY COLOR & PAINTS PVT. LTD. .......... New Delhi
Products/Services : Manufacturers and exporters of interior wall paints: 1001 premium velvet acrylic emulsion, 1001 acrylic washable distemper, 1001 flat oil paint, 1001 dry distemper, hard coat quick drying enamel, 1001 superior white zinc paint, lotus superior white zinc paint, kamal distemper, cement primer oil base, cement primer water base, 1001 wall putty.exterior wall paints: super glossycem is : 5410, 1001 premium hi-gloss synthetic enamel, white horse furniture enamel, 1001 weatherite exterior wall paint smooth, textured finish weatherite, 1001 rakshak exterior wall paint.protective coatings: industrial primers, chemical resistant coatings, stoving paints, acrylic urethane paints.metal paints, furniture paints: surfacer primer 1001 white, 1001 aluminium paint, 1001 red oxide primer for metals, 1001 hi-gloss synthetic enamel, glossy synthetic enamel, hammerite hammertone finish.wood finishes
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ANABOND LIMITED .......... Chennai
Products/Services : Manufacturer & exporter ofanaerobic- thread locker, bearing retainer, pipe sealant, liquid gasketing.rtv silicones- rtv silicone single part system, rtv silicone two-part system.cyanoacrylate.epoxy- epoxy-single part systems, epoxy-two part systems.rubber based- solvent based neoprene adhesives / sealants, liquid gasket maker, structural adhesive, non-curing butyl mastic putty & tape, sound dampening pads.polyurethane- polyurethane-one part system, polyurethane two-part system.lubricants- silicone grease, thermally conductive heat sink compound, anti-seize compound, radiator coolant.
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Products/Services : Manufacturer of paints & material-waterproofing products-repair products -tile fixing products -sealants -concrete admixture -flooring products -grouts -wall finish -wood adhesives & sealants -craftsmen -fevicolconsumer -fevibond -fevikwik -fevitite -fevifix -fevistik -fevicol mr-fevigum industrial fabric care-ranipal range-ranipal all white -ranipal stain off -ranipal car care-polyester putty-liquid polish-rubbing compound -wax polish -car shampoo -upholstery cleaner -dashboard polish maintenance products-m-seal new products-premium liquid polish -cream polish -showcase urethane plus -showcase acrylic -ceramic colours -lamination glue
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Products/Services : Product rangeautomotive fast drying finishessolid shades as well as metallic shadesindustrial finishesstoving finishesstoving cum air-drying paints (scad)two pack air drying coatings (p u type)chlorinated rubber paints (for marine finishes) novelty finishesglow-in-the-dark, photoluminiscent coatingsfluorescent finishes for road marking paintsglass coloursflambuoyant coatingspearl coatingsgeneral purpose synthetic enamels & varnishesprimersquick set primer (qsp)red oxide primer (rop)primer surfacer white (psw)pink wood primer (pwp) black board paint (bbp)zinc chromate primer (zcp)black japanrubber seal compoundglass puttycement paints (snowcem)
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HI-TECH CORPORATION .......... Ahnedabad
Products/Services : Exporters and traders of various plant maintenance products like welding and soldar, epoxy adhesive, epoxy resin, epoxy putty, lubricants, greases, cleaners, specialty lubricants, aerosols, cleaners, emergency repair products, machinable products, erosion and corrosion resistance products, poly ceramic compound, poly ceramic liquid, abrasion resistant products, micro bead and wear resistant compound, specialty aerosols, greases, lithium based greases, anaerobic adhesive sealant, consumable products, adhesives, perfect seal, cyanobond, epoxy resins and hardeners, amino resins, polyamide resins, epoxy resins, epoxy esters and reactive diluents, hardeners and accelerators.
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Mumbai Metro One

Project Update
Home - Project Update

Mumbai Metro One is on the fast track. In one of the major achievements last month, Mumbai Metro One Private Limited (MMOPL) has achieved the Financial Closure of Rs. 1194 crore for the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor. IDBI is the Lead Banker.

While construction activity is in full swing along the alignment, all major contracts for the project have been awarded:
Automatic Fare Collection System: Indra
Track Work: VNC Rail1
Communication Systems: Thales
Power Supply, Traction & SCADA: ABB
Signaling & Train Control System: Siemens
Three special bridges at Andheri station, Western Express Highway and Mithi River: SEW Infrastructure Limited

Rolling Stock: CSR Nanjing Puzhen Rolling Stock Co., Ltd
Civil Works for Depot Earthworks: Shyam Narayan & Brothers
Civil Works for 12 stations: SEW Constructions Limited
Civil works for viaduct: Simplex Infrastructure Limited
Civil Construction:

Viaduct works:

Test Pile driving activity underway at Azad Nagar and Western Express Highway
Pile Load Test completed at Versova, D N Nagar, J B Nagar, Airport Road, Marol Pipe Line, Sakinaka, Asalpha & Ghatkopar
139 working piles, 10 pile caps and 3 starters for piers completed at J B Nagar; 54 working piles completed and pile cap work commenced at Versova
Wadala casting yard:
Batching plant commissioned and concrete being produced for structures
Quality Lab functional
Casting Bed Construction is in progress
Special Bridges:
Western Express Highway Special Bridge: 8 out of 8 piles completed on east side
Mithi River Bridge: Utility identification completed; utility shifting in progress

Station works:

Work at 8 out of 12 stations and at substation is in Load Tests completed for all these stations.
Ghatkopar: We have completed 14 footings & 49 working piles. 14 columns above ground level have been also completed
Asalpha: We have completed 11 piles
Sakinaka: Utility identification & shifting is in progress
Marol Naka: LHS: All piles have been completed. RHS: Utility identification & shifting completed, piling to commence soon
Airport Road: Utility identification completed; shifting underway, piling will be commenced soon
Chakala: LHS: 19 out pf 12 piles and 2 out 6 pile caps completed. RHS: Utility identification & shifting completed and 11 out of 21 piles completed
WEH: Utility Identification is in progress on LHS
Andheri: Construction area barricaded, however work is at halt due to pending approval on Andheri Bridge Design from Western Railway
Marol Substation: Foundation work have been completed and plinth beam work is in progress

Labour camps:

Setting up of labour camps at Malwani and Mulund completed

Working "round-the-clock", the company completed most of the preparatory work for this project much ahead of schedule:

Tendering phase:

Tendering phase for all the major systems and sub-systems is completed. Tender documents were issued and bids were received for:

Civil Works
Rolling Stock
Signaling System
Track work
Power Supply and Traction
Communication System
Automatic Fare Collection System
Electrical & Mechanical Works
Depot Machinery & Plant
Catenary Maintenance Vehicle

Detailed Design and Engineering

Mumbai Metro One has completed the preliminary and conceptual design & engineering; detailing commenced
Passenger safety and convenience is being used as the basic principle for system design & engineering
For the first time Integrated Security Measures are being ensured in the design phase itself
Rigorous and iterative process is being followed to arrive at most optimal designs

Public Access to Information

The contact us and feedback features provided on the website are serving as hotlines to address common man queries and concerns
In order to make the project more interactive, a Public Information Centre has been set up at Saki Naka, Andheri East to address public queries and seek their feedback on the project. Operational 5 days a week from Monday to Friday, it is open from 10.00am to 2.00pm

Completion of the above mentioned tasks in a record time is a result of immaculate planning and rigorous homework undertaken by the company in the initial stage itself. As part of the planning process, various investigations, surveys and studies were completed during the first six months of the project. These include:

Topographic Survey
Geotechnical Investigations
Condition Survey of adjoining structures
Logistic Survey
Utility Survey
Mock-up trials for girder movement
Conceptual Designs for the viaduct and stations
Station Access Management Study
Traffic Management

Mumbai Metro One is also gearing to become Asia’s first Green Metro right from the construction stage. With a strong focus on environment, Mumbai Metro One will not only use technology that is environment-friendly but has also undertaken the following studies:

Environment impact assessment
Feasibility for LEED certification for the Project

Some of the Key Milestones on the project achieved this far:

Mumbai Metro One Private Limited, a Special Purpose Vehicle to construct the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor was incorporated on December 22, 2006
The Engineering and Project Management Consultants, a consortium of Parsons Brinkerhoff (USA) and Systra SA (France) joined the team on February 14, 2007
The Corporate office for MMOPL was inaugurated on February 27, 2007
Signing of the Concession Agreement and Shareholders agreement took place on March 7, 2007
MMOPL and Government of Maharashtra entered the State Support Agreement on April 20, 2007
Public Interface Office called “Public Information Centre” opened for public on October 26, 2007
Construction commenced on February 8, 2008
Financial Closure for the project completed on October 3, 2008


ATEX Directive


ATEX Certification

ATEX Directive 94/9/EC compliance

If you are manufacturing products intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres, you must provide assurance that your equipment will not cause an explosion during routine operation. Demonstrating compliance with the ATEX Directive 94/9/EC will provide that assurance.

It is mandatory for these products to bear both the Distinctive Community Mark (the Ex Mark in hexagon) and CE marking before being sold in the EU.

In addition, ATEX is frequently a contract specification for countries outside of Europe.Intertek has many years experience working with explosion protected equipment and in supporting manufacturers in their ATEX activities.

In addition, we are also CE experts, with knowledge of current and emerging national and international standards and how these can affect the EMC, safety, performance and environmental issues of your design. And we can handle anything, from components to large industrial machines.

Explosion Safety for EuropeIntertek's complete range of EU Notified Body services under the ATEX Directive 94/9/EC include:
Training seminars
Design review services
Practical guidance through the EHSRs
Classification of hazardous areas
Technical Dossier preparation
Certificates of Conformity
EC Type-Examination Certificates
Product Safety Certification Scheme

Global Explosion Safety
Our knowledge of CEN, CENELEC, ANSI/UL, IEC, CSA Mil Specs and FM standards is vast, and as an IECEx Testing Laboratory and Certification Body, can eliminate the need for multiple national certifications. Start Your Project Today!


FM Approvals

go here

Notes on The Ex Scheme

(see also IECEx page and UL notes on IECEx Scheme)
Back to Ex page
HAZLOC INC. has provided the following information on:
Equipment for use in hazardous locations must normally be certified by a recognized certification body in the country where it is to be installed. One exception to this is in the European Community where, if a certificate for equipment is received from a certifying body (known in Europe as a “notified body”), it must be accepted by all of the other member countries.
Since the free trade agreement between USA and Canada was signed, there is also an agreement between USA and Canada whereby CSA approval can be accepted in USA and UL approval can be accepted in Canada.
However, most of the equipment for export is presently covered by a number of memorandums of understanding (MOU’s) between two certifying bodies. For example, CSA have an agreement with Laboratoire Central des Industries Electriques (LCIE) in France. This agreement allows CSA to assess equipment against the European Standards (CENELEC Standards) and send a report to LCIE. This report is then reviewed by LCIE and if they agree, the equipment receives a European certificate. The reverse is also true, LCIE can assess a piece of equipment to the Canadian Standard and submit a report to CSA.
Similar MOU’s exist between CSA and FM, FM and Physikalisch-Tcchnische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany and between UL and Danmarks Electriske Materielkintrol (DEMCO) in Denmark.
Although these MOU’s are working, they do not solve all of the problems of international trade because they only work between North America and Europe. However, IEC have devised a scheme that will be effective worldwide!
The aim of the IEC scheme is to facilitate international trade in this field by allowing a manufacturer to get certification from one body which will automatically be accepted in all member countries. There will be one submission, one set of tests and one certification mark.
There are two essential criteria for participation in the scheme. First, the country must adopt the IEC Standards. Second, they must agree to accept the IEC certification mark as equivalent to that of one of their own certification bodies.
Until the countries are able to fully comply with these criteria, there will be a transitional period. During this period, the member countries are allowed to have “deviations” from the IEC Standards. However they must try to eliminate these deviations as soon as possible. In the meantime, each member “Accepted Certification Body” (ACB) will be permitted to issue a report on the equipment which must be accepted by any other member ACB without repeating any of the tests already performed. This eliminates the repetition of testing in each country. However, the equipment must still receive a certificate from the country where it is to be installed.
When the countries have fulfilled all of the criteria, they will then be permitted to authorize the use of the IEC Certification mark on the equipment they have certified and this mark must be accepted by all member countries without any further investigation.
The following is a list of the countries which have joined this scheme to date:
South Africa
United Kingdom
There is one obvious omission from this list – USA! They are still considering their options. One impediment to their membership is that they have a large number of inspection authorities (every State, County and City may have its own electrical inspector) and it will be difficult to convince each one of them to accept the IEC mark.
If you have any concerns about the position of the US National Committee on this matter, contact ANSI (fax No. 212-398-0023), for further information.
The above information is from John Bossert of HAZLOC INC. who may be reached at (see also IECEx page)
Back to Ex pageUpdated Jan. 18, 2001


Saturday, December 27, 2008

TASMAC, the first organisation in India to be ISO 9001: 2008 Certified

becomes worlds 1st Education Institute to be ISO 9001: 2008 certified

India, Republic of (Press Release) December 15, 2008 -- Pune, December 15 ,08. TASMAC (Training and Advanced Studies in Management and Communications Ltd) becomes the first organization in India to receive the ISO 9001:2008 certification. It is also the first training / education related organization in the world to have received this prestigious certification. TASMAC, known for its high quality programmes in association with the University of Wales, was also the first Management Institution to have received the ISO 9001:2000 certification. Thanking Det Norkes Veritas (DNV), the certifying body for its support and co-operation, Dr. Giri Dua- Chairman & MD, TASMAC said, "TASMAC had been preparing the transition for some time, and we had adapted and kept our documentation ready appropriately. Soon after the new standard was released on November 14, 2008, TASMAC applied for certification." Dr. Dua further added, "Our pursuit of excellence and commitment to quality has laid very strong foundations for each of our endeavours. We have reinforced our commitment towards our students by being the 1st institute to get this certification."The scope of the certification includes Design & Development of Syllabi for Teaching & Learning and Evaluation & Certification of students undergoing various programmes at our institution.ISO 9001:2008, Quality management system, is the fourth edition of the standard first published in 1987 and which has become the global benchmark for providing assurance about the ability to satisfy quality requirements and to enhance customer satisfaction in supplier-customer relationships. ISO Secretary-General Alan Bryden on the ISO website has commented: "The revised ISO 9001 results from a structured process giving weight to the needs of users and to the likely impacts and benefits of the revisions. ISO 9001:2008 is therefore the outcome of a rigorous examination confirming its fitness for use as the international benchmark for quality management."TASMAC recently set up a campus in London, UK – the first ever Indian institution to set up campus in the United Kingdom and commenced the first batch on 13th October 2008.


Friday, December 26, 2008

India opens account for trading in carbon credits , September 20

# Airlines, US Cool to EU Emissions Trading Scheme, September 30# US - Regional meeting on carbon dioxide emissions ends with no agreement, September 29# Japan Launches Voluntary Emissions Trading Scheme, September 28# Airlines should join emissions trade scheme - EU, September 27# Canada environment minister: post-Kyoto deal to take several years, September 26# Japan Government may buy Heavy CO2 Credit Volume from 2006, September 22# Ottawa to host climate change summit, September 21# India opens account for trading in carbon credits , September 20# Russia - Firms Pressure Russia to Adopt Kyoto Mechanisms, September 20# Global Futures Exchange for Kyoto Credits seen 2006, September 15# Brazil opens carbon credit market, September 15# India firms eye $5 bln from carbon credit in 7 years, September 14# More U.S. companies weighing climate risks, September 14# Canada does not see breakthrough at post-Kyoto meet, September 12
India opens account for trading in carbon credits , September 20
The Telegraph Pollution-busting carbon credits — a derivative instrument designed to scrub greenhouse gases from the earth’s atmosphere — is coming to India.
Carbon credits basically seek to encourage countries to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as it rewards those countries that meet their targets and provides financial incentives to others to do so as quickly as possible.
There is moolah to be made in all this. Surplus credits that are acquired by overshooting the emission reduction target can be sold in the global market. One credit is equivalent to one tonne of CO2 emission reduced. Carbon credits are available for companies engaged in developing renewable energy projects that offset the use of fossil fuels.
The Multi-Commodity Exchange of India (MCX), the country’s leading commodity exchange, may soon become the third exchange in the world with a licence to trade in carbon credits.
The Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX), North America’s first and only multi-sector marketplace for reducing and trading greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, today announced a licensing agreement with MCX. Many Indian companies have already been re-rated on the stock markets on the basis of the bonanza that will accrue to them when carbon trading kicks off.
Under the agreement, the Chicago exchange will list mini-sized versions of its European Climate Exchange (ECX) Carbon Financial Instruments (CFI) and Chicago Climate Futures Exchange, Sulfur Financial Instrument futures contracts on the MCX trading platform.
Jignesh Shah, managing director & CEO of MCX, said: “The next generation commodities exchanges have an important role to play in price discovery of all renewable and non-renewable natural resources for most optimal resource allocation. With the increasing global environment related concerns, this role assumes significance for environmental related resources.”
At present, the trading in carbon credits takes place on two stock exchanges — the Chicago Climate Exchange and the European Climate Exchange.
“Environment related products are the new generation commodities and MCX being market leader in globally referenced commodities has once again taken the lead to bring most innovative product in this segment to Indian markets for the first time,” Shah added.
The Kyoto Protocol is a voluntary treaty signed by 141 countries, including the European Union, Japan and Canada to reduce GHG emission by 5.2 per cent below 1990 levels by 2012. However, the US, which accounts for one-third of the total GHG emission, is yet to sign this treaty. The preliminary phase of the Kyoto Protocol is to start in 2007 while the second phase starts from 2008.
Developed countries have to spend nearly $300 to $500 for every tonne reduction in CO2, against $10 to $25 to be spent by developing countries. In developing countries like India, the emission levels are much below the target fixed by the Kyoto Protocol. So, they are excluded from reduction of GHG emission. On the contrary, they are entitled to sell surplus credits to developed countries. The European countries and Japan are the major buyers of carbon credits.
This is what makes trading in carbon credits such a great business opportunity. Foreign companies which cannot fulfil the protocol norms can buy the surplus credit from companies in other countries. This lead to a flourishing trade in Credit Emission Reduction.
India is considered as the largest beneficiary, claiming about 31 per cent of the total world carbon trade through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It is expected to rake in at least $5 billion to $10 billion (Rs 22,500 crore to Rs 45,000 crore) over a period of time.
ECX, an entity 51 per cent owned by CCX and 49 per cent by Climate Change plc, a company listed on the AIM division of London Stock Exchange, offers futures contracts based on emission allowances issued under the European Union emissions trading scheme.
Neil Eckert, chairman of ECX, said, “The introduction of CCX environmental financial products in Asia represents a new milestone both for CCX and the region. India has vast natural resources and new generation organised sector, which will provide an important reason for the Indian industry to benefit from these products.”