tracker

TQMC

TQMC has acquired wide Domain Knowledge and Experience. You can FREELY access it here and here

DISCLAIMER: This matter here is a guide only. For authentic and up-to-date information, please contact TQMC.

The DIRECTIVES and STANDARDS listed here may have been subsequently REVISED . You must refer to the CURRENT REVISION and AMENDMENTS if any.

Sunday, December 28, 2008

CONTRACT REVIEW Important - ISO 9001

Contract Law - An Introduction
By Aaron Larson
Contents
The Elements of a Contract
Oral Contracts
A contract intends to formalize an agreement between two or more parties, in relation to a particular subject. Contracts can cover an extremely broad range of matters, including the sale of goods or real property, the terms of employment or of an independent contractor relationship, the settlement of a dispute, and ownership of intellectual property developed as part of a work for hire.


The Elements of a Contract
Typically, in order to be enforceable, a contract must involve the following elements:
A "Meeting of the Minds" (Mutual Consent)
The parties to the contract have a mutual understanding of what the contract covers. For example, in a contract for the sale of a "mustang", the buyer thinks he will obtain a car and the seller believes he is contracting to sell a horse, there is no meeting of the minds and the contract will likely be held unenforceable.


Offer and Acceptance
The contract involves an offer (or more than one offer) to another party, who accepts the offer. For example, in a contract for the sale of a piano, the seller may offer the piano to the buyer for $1,000.00. The buyer's acceptance of that offer is a necessary part of creating a binding contract for the sale of the piano.
Please note that a counter-offer is not an acceptance, and will typically be treated as a rejection of the offer. For example, if the buyer counter-offers to purchase the piano for $800.00, that typically counts as a rejection of the original offer for sale. If the seller accepts the counter-offer, a contract may be completed. However, if the seller rejects the counter-offer, the buyer will not ordinarily be entitled to enforce the prior $1,000.00 price if the seller decides either to raise the price or to sell the piano to somebody else.


Mutual Consideration (The mutual exchange of something of value)
In order to be valid, the parties to a contract must exchange something of value. In the case of the sale of a piano, the buyer receives something of value in the form of the piano, and the seller receives money.


While the validity of consideration may be subject to attack on the basis that it is illusory (e.g., one party receives only what the other party was already obligated to provide), or that there is a failure of consideration (e.g., the consideration received by one party is essentially worthless), these defenses will not let a party to a contract escape the consequences of bad negotiation. For example, if a seller enters into a contract to sell a piano for $100, and later gets an offer from somebody else for $1,000, the seller can't revoke the contract on the basis that the piano was worth a lot more than he bargained to receive.



Performance or Delivery
In order to be enforceable, the action contemplated by the contract must be completed. For example, if the purchaser of a piano pays the $1,000 purchase price, he can enforce the contract to require the delivery of the piano. However, unless the contract provides that delivery will occur before payment, the buyer may not be able to enforce the contract if he does not "perform" by paying the $1,000. Similarly, again depending upon the contract terms, the seller may not be able to enforce the contract without first delivering the piano.



In a typical "breach of contract" action, the party alleging the breach will recite that it performed all of its duties under the contract, whereas the other party failed to perform its duties or obligations.



Additionally, the following elements may factor into the enforceability of any contract:
Good Faith
It is implicit within all contracts that the parties are acting in good faith. For example, if the seller of a "mustang" knows that the buyer thinks he is purchasing a car, but secretly intends to sell the buyer a horse, the seller is not acting in good faith and the contract will not be enforceable.


No Violation of Public Policy
In order to be enforceable, a contract cannot violate "public policy". For example, if the subject matter of a contract is illegal, you cannot enforce the contract. A contract for the sale of illegal drugs, for example, violates public policy and is not enforceable.



Please note that public policy can shift. Traditionally, many states refused to honor gambling debts incurred in other jurisdictions on public policy grounds. However, as more and more states have permitted gambling within their own borders, that policy has mostly been abandoned and gambling debts from legal enterprises are now typically enforceable. (A "bookie" might not be able to enforce a debt arising from an illegal gambling enterprise, but a legal casino will now typically be able to enforce its debt.) Similarly, it used to be legal to sell "switchblade kits" through the U.S. mail, but that practice is now illegal. Contracts for the interstate sale of such kits were no longer enforceable following that change in the law.



Oral Contracts
There is an old joke that "an oral contract isn't worth the paper it's written on". That's a reference to the fact that it can be very difficult to prove that an oral contract exists. Absent proof of the terms of the contract, a party may be unable to enforce the contract or may be forced to settle for less than the original bargain. Thus, even when there is not an opportunity to draft up a formal contract, it is good practice to always make some sort of writing, signed by both parties, to memorialize the key terms of an agreement.


At the same time, under most circumstances, if the terms of an oral contract can be proved or are admitted by the other party, an oral contract is every bit as enforceable as one that is in writing. There are, however, "statute of fraud" laws which hold that some contracts cannot be enforced unless reduced to writing and signed by both parties. For more information on the Statute of Frauds, please see this associated article.


Please note that, although sometimes an oral contract is referred to as a "verbal contract", the term "oral" means "spoken" while the term "verbal" can also mean" in words". Under that definition, all contracts are technically "verbal". If you mean to refer to a contract that is not written, although most people will recognize what you mean by "verbal contract", for maximum clarity it is helpful to refer to it as an "oral contract".
more



Contract Review
In our company, we use contracts to define what we are to make and deliver to our customer, when it is to be delivered, what the price will be, and other sundry considerations.


Rationale
We believe it is important to review a contract with both the customer and the people doing the work before it is finalized. This is to make sure we understand what the customer wants and that we are able to make a product that fulfills what those desires.


We believe that effective contract review will result in reduced costs by helping eliminate contractual misunderstandings that cause wasted effort and material. It will also ultimately result in increased business due to customer satisfaction from getting expected goods and services.


Policy
Thus, in order to make sure there are no contractual misunderstandings, it is the policy of this company to adhere to the ISO 9001 standard on Contract Review and always review each contract before it is finalized to see that:
The requirements are adequately defined and documented;
Any requirements differing from those in the tender are resolved; and
We have the capability to meet contractual requirements.


Also, to make sure there are no contractual misunderstandings, it is our policy to always coordinate with the purchaser's organization, as appropriate, our contract review activities, interfaces and communication.



To make sure we can check and verify what transpired at our contract review meetings, it is our policy to always maintain records of those contract reviews, as per Policy.


To make sure we properly implement this contract review policy, it is our policy to always use Procedure for the review of contracts and for the coordination of these activities.
more

9 comments:

  1. I hardly comment, however i did a few searching and wound up here "CONTRACT REVIEW Important - ISO 9001".
    And I do have a couple of questions for you if it's allright. Could it be only me or does it look as if like some of these comments come across like left by brain dead visitors? :-P And, if you are writing at other social sites, I'd like to follow everything
    fresh you have to post. Could you list of all of all your communal pages like your
    twitter feed, Facebook page or linkedin profile?


    Also visit my blog best state to buy a used car

    ReplyDelete
  2. Hello! Ι know this іѕ sоmewhat off topic but I was wondering whiсh
    blοg platform aгe you using for this wеbsіte?
    I'm getting tired of Wordpress because I've had isѕues with hаckеrs anԁ I'm looking at options for another platform. I would be fantastic if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

    Here is my homepage; cash for cars baltimore

    ReplyDelete
  3. Thanks for sharing your thoughts. I really appreciate your efforts and I will be
    waiting for your next write ups thank you once again.


    Review my site :: how to buy a used car from a dealership

    ReplyDelete
  4. Hi, і thіnk that i saw you visіted my site so i got
    heге to геturn the choose?

    .I'm attempting to find issues to improve my web site!I guess its ok to use some of your concepts!!

    Also visit my web page instant cash for cars

    ReplyDelete
  5. Ι feel that is аmong the so much signіficant information
    for me. Αnd i am glad studyіng your article.
    Hоwever should commentary on sоme cοmmon thіngs, The website stylе is
    ideal, thе articles іѕ in reality great : D.

    Excellent activіty, cheers

    Feel free to ѵiѕit my homepage - Cash loans for cars

    ReplyDelete
  6. You made some decent points there. I looked on the net to learn more about the issue
    and found most people will go along with your views on this website.


    Feel free to surf to my web-site - buy a used car in maryland

    ReplyDelete
  7. We're a group of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community. Your website provided us with valuable information to work on. You've done a formidable job and our entire community will
    be thankful to you.

    Here is my website :: contract for selling a car

    ReplyDelete
  8. I аm truly pleaseԁ to read this web site posts which consists of plentу of
    helρful data, thanks for ρroviding thesе data.



    Also visit my hοmeρage ... caѕh
    for cаrѕ long islаnd ()

    ReplyDelete
  9. nice blog !! i was looking for blogs related of iso certification india . then i found this blog, this is really nice and interested to read. thanks to author for sharing this type of information.

    ReplyDelete