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Saturday, February 27, 2010

Bearing failure

when your bearing fails
dont just replace



SUBJECT: Troubleshooting premature bearing failure 5-3

As discussed in technical article 4-12 on this web site, bearings have no wearable surfaces, they are instead designed to fatigue after many hours of service.

In a properly operating bearing the race ways and rolling elements will become dull in appearance. This dullness is not an indication of wear and has no affect on the life of the bearing. These dull surfaces form visible paths, so their appearance and location is important in analyzing any type of bearing failure.

When we install a bearing into a piece of rotating equipment the general rule is to have the interference fit on the race that is rotating and, therefore, carrying the load. Almost all centrifugal pumps, motors, and a high percentage of other types of rotating equipment have the bearings installed with the inner race an interference fit and rotating with the shaft . The outer race remains stationary, or in a fixed position.

In the following paragraphs I will be discussing various load conditions and the resultant appearance of the raceways and rotating elements in this type of an installation:
The radial load is rotating with the shaft, This is caused by an unbalanced rotating assembly or a bent shaft.

The inner ring appearance. The load acts all of the time at the same place in the race way. Here the path pattern is at its widest, tapering off at the ends. If the load is only radial, the pattern will be in the center of the race way and will extend around slightly less the half the race way circumference.

The outer ring appearance. The path will extend around the entire race way. It will be uniform in width and if the load is only radial, it will be in the center of the race way.
The radial load is unidirectional. This is what we would expect to find with a properly operating piece of equipment. If the equipment is operating off of its best efficiency point, is misaligned, or if there is excessive pipe strain the pattern will be the same, only more pronounced.
The inner ring appearance. The path will be in the center of the race way, uniform in width and visible around the entire circumference of the race way.

The outer ring appearance. The pattern will be widest at the load point and tapering towards the ends. If the fit and clearances are normal the pattern will extend around to slightly less than one half of the raceway. It will be located in the center of the race way, if the load is only radial.
The radial load is multidirectional . Cavitation, too tight an interference fit, preloading, or cooling a bearing outside diameter are all common causes of this problem.

The inner ring appearance. All around the race way, widest where the load was the greatest.
The outer ring appearance. All around the race way, widest where the load was the greatest.
The axial load is unidirectional. This is the normal condition of all end suction centrifugal pumps.
Both the inner and outer rings. The pattern will extend around both raceways and is displaced axially from the center. A centrifugal pump thrusts towards the thrust bearing until it reaches 65% of its efficiency and then it thrusts towards the volute or wet end during normal operation.
An oval compression of the outer ring. Caused by an out of round housing.

The inner ring appearance. The path extends around the entire ring and is uniform in width.
The outer ring appearance. Two wider paths where the ring was distorted to the oval shape.
The inner ring was misaligned. Normally happens during the installation process.
The inner ring appearance. The pattern extends around the entire ring and is uniform in appearance.

The outer ring appearance. The ball path will be oval, extending from one side of the race way to the other, and wider in two diametrically opposite sections.
Now that we know what some typical wear paths look like, we'll inspect the only two things that are visible to the trained trouble shooter.
Evidence of rubbing.
Evidence of corrosion and damage.
Look for damage caused by solid particles.

These particles will be rolled into the race ways and can:
Score, or cause small indentations in the precision races and rolling elements.
Interfere with the transfer of heat within the tight tolerances, causing discoloration, thermal expansion, seizing etc.…

The particles come from:
Varnish and "coke" that forms where the lubricant overheated.
Parts of the ball cage that have broken loose due to a lack of lubrication. Brass cage parts will turn the lubricant green.
Pieces from a failed grease or lip seal.

A contaminated lubricant.
Lack of cleanliness during the installation process. The bearings are being installd next to the area where the mechanic is grinding a new edge on his lawnmower blade.
The bearing lubricant could have been over heated during the installation process.
Rust coming off the inside of the casting.
Silica leaching out of the casting
Particles of material flaking off of the protective coating put on the inside of the housing to prevent rust.

Airborne - through the bearing seals or housing vent.
Look for lack of lubrication that can eventually cause the bearing to seize:
You will see" mirror like" surfaces on the metal parts that look like the piece was "lapped".
The metal will become discolored and soften as it anneals. Annealing can occur any time the temperature exceeds 300°F (150°C):
Straw yellow 600° F. 315° C.
Brown 700° F. 370° C.
Blue 800° F. 425° C.
Black 900° F. 480° C.
If a pre- lubricated bearing was heated by immersing it in a hot oil bath (200°F or 100°C), the hot oil will wash out the grease and leave the bearing with little to no lubrication.
Many pre-lubricated bearings actually have no lubricant at all installed. Check yours to be sure. Bearing quality is a serious maintenance problem.
A clogged oil level gauge can give a false reading of lubrication level.
If the bearing case has no expansion chamber installed, a build up of internal pressure, as the bearing case comes up to temperature, can blow out of the seals. At shut down, moisture laden air will return to the case through the same seals.
A poorly designed labyrinth seal can pump hot oil out of the bearing case. The lubricating oil level should be at the middle of the lower bearing ball when the pump is at rest.
Be sure the pump has been leveled to insure the correct lubrication height.
Look for smearing of the metal . When two non lubricated surfaces slide against each other, under load, the material transfers from one surface to the other.
The metal melts and then re-hardens, causing localized stress that can produce cracks in the metal..
The load was too light for the speed. Centrifugal force threw the balls out.
The outer race will smear on the outside diameter if it slides during operation due to an improper "slip fit". This slipping can also cause "fretting corrosion" as the protective oxide film is worn away from the metal surface.
Look for evidence of static vibration. You will see indents in the raceway that could be either shiny or rusted in the bottom. The frequency of the vibration has no affect, but greater energy causes greater damage. Roller bearings are more susceptible to this type of damage because the balls, in a ball bearing, can roll in many directions. Rollers, how ever, can roll in only one direction. Movement in the other directions takes the form of "sliding".
The pump was located too close to another piece of equipment that was vibrating. This can be a big problem during storage.
The shaft was not locked during shipment.
In addition to vibration, equally spaced indents can be caused by:
An induction heater was used during assembly, causing "false Duriron".
The bearing was installed by pressing on the wrong race.
The bearing was driven too far up a tapered shaft.
Look for electric current damage. It will show up on both the races and the rolling element. The bottom of the depression will be dark in color.
The pump was used as a ground for a welding rig.
Look for flaking or spalling of the metal race way. Since there is nothing in a bearing to wear out, flaking or spalling is a sign of normal fatigue. Overloading however, can cause premature fatigue. Look for the following causes of bearing overloading:
The bearing housing is out of round.
The shaft is over size.
The bearing was driven up too far on a tapered shaft.
Misalignment between the pump and its driver.
The rotating assembly is out of balance.
The shaft is bent.
The pump is operating too far off of its best efficiency point (B.E.P.).
Pipe strain.
Water hammer in the lines.
The bearing had a quality problem to start with.
Shaft thermal expansion.
The bearing housing is being cooled, causing the outer race to shrink, increasing the load.
Excessive axial thrust.
Pulley driven design.
Hydrogen embrittlement of the metal caused by moisture entering the lubricant.
Pumping a high specific gravity fluid such as sulfuric acid can almost double the radial load.
Overloading is often accompanied by a change in appearance of the lubricant. You will see varnish or coke as the lubricant is subjected to this high heat.
In addition to overloading there are additional sources of heat that can destroy the lubricant :
Soak temperatures through the shaft. This can be a big problem in either hot oil or hot water applications.
Over lubrication of the bearing.
Plugged oil return holes.
Constant oil cups at the wrong level.
Insufficient clearance in labyrinth seals.
The oil gage breather hole is blocked and showing the wrong lubrication level.
Bent lock washer prongs can rub against the bearing race.
Grease or lip seals are too tight on the shaft.
The pump stuffing box cooling jacket was shut off and drained when the metal bellows seal was installed in a high temperature oil application.
Someone is cooling the power end case causing the bearing outer race to shrink.
Friction with the seal cage.
Sliding friction caused by small changes in the shaft speed. Inertia keeps the balls moving as the shaft slows down.
The stuffing box packing has been over tightened.
Look for cracks in the metal.
The bearing was driven too far up a tapered shaft.
Any type of flaking or smearing can cause a fracture notch that will lead to cracking.
Look for signs of corrosion.
Moisture is in the lubricant. It came from:
Packing or seal leakage.
A water hose being used to wash down the area.
Normal aspiration as the pump cooled down, and the moisture ladened atmosphere entered the bearing case.
Steam or water from a seal quench gland. This is a common problem with the A.P.I. gland that is commonly used in oil refineries.
Regardless of the protective coating put on the bearing races, (cadmium, chromium, zinc, etc.) the rolling elements are almost always fabricated from 52100 bearing steel, and it rusts.
The major bearing companies do a good job of providing the literature and photographs that you need to do effective "comparison troubleshooting". Check with your bearing supplier for the availability of this information.

For information about my CD with over 600 Seal & Pump Subjects explained, click here
Link to Mc Nally home page

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ISO 9004: 2009

ISO 9004 self assessment, go here


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Friday, February 26, 2010

Energy Management LINKS

BS/EN 16000
ISO 50001

Energy Management Standards and Industrial Energy Efficiency

Energy management seeks to influence how energy is managed in industry, which is the single greatest barrier to realizing a potential energy efficiency improvement of 20% or more over the next 15 years. The challenge is to provide a business- friendly mechanism for applying the same types of management practices to energy that it already applies to other resources such as labor and materials.

Industry requires standardization to function and prosper; an energy management standard simply builds on management best practices already well-known to many industrial facilities. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recognized this opportunity by making energy management one of its top five global priorities through the initiation of work on ISO 50001- Energy management. ISO 50001: Energy Management seeks to provide the same culture of continuous improvement that has been successfully applied by industrial firms to quality and safety practices. ISO 50001 has the potential to become a global trade catalyst for industrial energy efficiency in the same way that ISO 9001 has for quality. The reason lies in the fact that industrial energy management makes good economic sense, leading to cost reduction and improved reliability, thereby contributing to greater productivity and improved competitiveness.

LBNL researcher, Aimee McKane, serves as Vice-Chair of the US Technical Advisory Group to the ISO Project Committee 242, the ISO body charged with developing ISO 50001 under leadership from the U.S. and Brazil. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)has been a primary driver in encouraging an international focus on industrial energy management. UNIDO hosted an Experts Group meeting in March 2007 that also produced an issues paper on national energy management standards already in use. UNIDO and the Standardization Administration of China hosted a Working Group meeting in April 2008 to accelerate work toward a harmonized standard. Researchers from LBNL and Georgia Institute of Technology conduct detailed research on energy management standards for this meeting.

Although there are examples of large multi-national corporations who have initiated their own energy management programs, most companies are simply not able to implement an energy management program without technical assistance. The Industrial Standards Framework is a fully-developed approach based on years of experience in developing training programs and tools to encourage greater motor system energy efficiency. At the core of the Framework is ISO 50001.

For more information on industrial energy management and enabling policies, see Policies for Promoting Industrial Energy Efficiency in Developing Countries and Transition Economies.

LBNL researchers are also working with the U.S. Department of Energy and a public/private partnership named Superior Energy Performance to design a program to certify U.S. industrial plants for energy efficiency. This program, now in the pilot phase, will be launched nationally in early 2010. The central element of the program is the current national energy management standard, ANSI Management System for Energy 2000:2008, to be replaced by ISO 50001 when it becomes available in early 2011.

See also: Industrial System Optimization


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Facts About Energy In India

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n 4 Lacs MW Electricity requirement by 2030, and the Current production is only 1.2 lacs MW.

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n The loss of Power in Transmission & Distribution is about 40% of total Energy Production.

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Thursday, February 25, 2010

cloud computing in INDIA

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Cloud computing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Cloud computing logical diagram

Cloud computing is a way of computing, via the Internet, that broadly shares computer resources instead of using software or storage on a local computer. Cloud refers to the fact that exact pathways and exact servers need not be addressed by the user. Cloud computing is an outgrowth of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet.[1]

In concept, it is a paradigm shift whereby details are abstracted from the users who no longer have need of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.[2] Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption and delivery model for IT services based on the Internet, and it typically involves the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources as a service over the Internet.[3][4]

The term cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud drawing used to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents.[5] Typical cloud computing providers deliver common business applications online which are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on servers.

A technical definition is "a computing capability that provides an abstraction between the computing resource and its underlying technical architecture (e.g., servers, storage, networks), enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction."[6] This definition states that clouds have five essential characteristics: on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, and measured service.[6]

The majority of cloud computing infrastructure, as of 2009, consists of reliable services delivered through data centers and built on servers. Clouds often appear as single points of access for all consumers' computing needs. Commercial offerings are generally expected to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements of customers and typically offer SLAs.[7]