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Sunday, March 28, 2010

Food Processing Industry in INDIA

Meat and Meat Products

India ranks top in animal and cattle population. The meat and meat processing industry is still to come up. Some top players in the meat processing industry like Venkateswara Hatcheries, Godrej Agrovet, Vista Processed Food, Al Kabeer, Allanasons etc., with modern state-of-the-art slaughter and processing plants, have changed the entire scenario, making the industry grow at almost 10%. There is a huge scope for expanding exports, especially in buffalo and poultry meat, eggs and dairy products.
There is an urgent need to frame a right strategy for the development of meat and poultry production in the country this will certainly bring prosperity to millions of our rural citizens and create employment in rural India. Having achieved the Green Revolution, the White Revolution and the Blue Revolution, it a question “can the Pink Revolution be far behind?” Certainly this will require large investment in infrastructure, mainly in cold storages, and modern meat processing plants. Without a strong and dependable cold chain, a vital sector like meat industry, which is based mostly on perishable products, cannot survive and grow.
India ranks first in world buffalo population, with 56.5% i.e. 94.1 million of buffalo population and one-sixth of goat population in the world. India also ranks first in milk production with over 100 million tonnes a year. The country is also fifth in egg production with over 1.6 million tonnes, while it is ninth in the number of poultry. Though India tops in meat, milk and eggs production, exports are very low because of quality considerations.
The export of sheep and goat meat in terms of quantity is very small. Buffalo meat export is also not much appreciable due to lack of competitive advantage. Export is restricted to countries primarily in the Middle East, with large ethnic Indian population who prefer it. Poultry products export is also not quite good. According to APEDA, the export of buffalo meat was 343817.08 tonnes (value Rs 1536.77crore) in 2003-04, 337777.65 tonnes (value Rs 1774.52 crore) in 2004-05 and 459937.63 tonnes (Rs 2629.57 crore) in 2005-06,494111.48 tonner(Rs.3211.70 crore) in 2006-07. The export of sheep/goat meat was 16820.53 tonnes (Rs 110.39 crore) in 2003-04, 9024.49 tonnes (Rs 81.27 crore) in 2004-05 and 7177.51 tonnes (Rs 80.37 crore) in 2005-06,5481.55 tonnes(Rs.63.05 crore) in 2006-07. The processed meat export was 986.13 tonnes (Rs 7.63 crore) in 2003-04, 1359.7 tonnes (Rs 9.45 crore) in 2004-05 and 256.04 tonnes (value Rs 2.43 crore) in 2005-06. The export of poultry products was 415228.17 tonnes (Rs 202.40 crore) in 2003-04, 277744.46 tonnes (Rs 160.79 crore) in 2004-05 and 145889 tonnes (Rs 167.58 crore) in 2005-06.
India produces an estimated 1.5 million tonnes of buffalo meat annually, of which 24% is exported. Even as per the latest census of 2003 there was a growth of 7.5% of buffalo livestock during the previous five years. The buffalo meat export industry has grown well. The potential for rapid growth is high, particularly if a specific time bound plan of action between the various wings of the government and the meat export industry is drawn up. Since the growth of buffalo meat for domestic consumption is low (less than 2%), the potential for export increases substantially.
India's poultry product exports are mainly confined to eggs and egg powder, which are growing due to cost competitiveness and logistical advantages. Poultry meat exports are negligible due to high costs, inadequate meat processing facilities and infrastructure bottlenecks. In recent years, some South India-based integrators have been exploring the possibility of exporting poultry meat to the Middle East and South-East Asian markets.
There are no restrictions on exports of poultry and poultry products. The government provides some transportation subsidies (Rs 3-15 per kg) for its exports. There are a number of issues that need to be addressed to fructify and ensure the growth for the current markets, industry sources expressed.
For the development of meat export from India the industry has demanded some immediate measures like financial assistance for upgradation of export oriented abattoirs/processing plants. Inclusion of buffalo meat under APEDA's Transport Assistance Scheme for new markets in Africa/CIS where freight cost from India for reefer containers is much higher than from competing countries. Restoration of DEPB rates for frozen buffalo meat. Exemption from Service Tax on transportation of meat products processed for exports. This is presently applicable only for fruits, vegetables, eggs or milk even for domestic consumption.
Since 1995, production of meat & meat products has been steadily growing at a rate of 4% p.a.. Currently, the processing level of buffalo meat is estimated at 21%, poultry 6% and marine products 8%. Only about 1% of the total meat is converted into value added products like sausages, ham, bacon, kababs, meatballs, etc. Production of meat is governed under local by-laws as slaughtering is a state subject. Processing of meat is licensed under the Meat Food Products Order, 1973.
In 2003 India had a livestock population of 470 million that included 205 mn cattle and 90 million buffaloes. The country produces about 450 mn broilers and 30 billion eggs annually. Cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goat, pigs and poultry are the types of animals, which are generally used for production of meat. Slaughter rate for cattle as a whole is 20%, for buffaloes it is 41%, pigs 99%, sheep 30% and 40% for goats. The country has 3,600 slaughterhouses, 9 modern abattoirs and 171 meat-processing units licensed under the meat products order.
The poultry industry is among the faster growing sectors rising at a rate of 8% per year. Vertical integration of poultry production and marketing has lowered costs of production, marketing margins and consumer prices of poultry meat. There are eight integrated poultry processing units in the country, which hold a significant share in the industry.
Exports of Meat and Meat Products (Quantity in MT, Value in Rs Mn)
2001-02
2004-05
CAGR
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Buffalo meat
243356
11444
306971
16156
8.0
12.2
Sheep/Goat meat
3915
331
8885
794
31.4
33.9
Poultry Production
19876
1301
264608
1541
137.0
5.8
Animal Casings
464
96
552
126
6.0
9.3
Processed Meat
267
13
107
16
-26.2
6.5
Total
267878
13185
581123
18633
29.5
12.2
Source: Ministry of Food Processing Industries, Annual Report 2007-08 to be compiled
Meat exports have been growing at close to 30% per annum in terms of quantity, which is largely driven by poultry, buffalo, sheep and goat meat. Exports of value added meat products are insignificant. In the domestic market, the growing number of fast food outlets in the country has had a significant impact on the meat processing industry.
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